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Private Revenue Perfins of Victoria

An Elsmore Coath production

The authors would welcome your comments additions or input into this work

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W

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WD/C.a

 

User: Unknown

Address: St, Melbourne, VIC

Revenue Use:

c1930 Series: 1d

Rarity Scale:

 

c1930 Series 1d R4

Background:

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: Nil

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WD/&Co.a

User: William Dodgshun

Warehousemen & Importers

Address: 258-260 Flinders Lane, Melbourne, VIC

Revenue Use: 

1886-1899 Series, inscribed 'STAMP DUTY' 1d (shades)

Rarity Scale:

 

1886-1899 Series 1d R4

Background:

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: VIC:WD/&S.a

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WD/&Co..a

User: Wood, Dunn & Co

Dairy Produce

Address: 10 Market St, Melbourne, VIC

Revenue Use: 

1886-1899 Series, inscribed 'STAMP DUTY' 1d (shades), 2d

Rarity Scale:

 

1886-1899 Series 1d R1, 2d R4

Background: Wood, Dunn & Co. was established by James Wood and James Dunn as “Commission and produce agents for farmers and dairymen” and brokers for farm sales, boasting (despite only appearing in the records in the same year) in late 1886 of a “long and intimate acquaintance with the farming community and their requirements”.

The company advertised extensively and often for supplies of butter, in particular, using the same advertisement in all newspapers, year after year.

 

In February, 1887, the firm of Wood & Co., produce merchants, of 25 King St, became a separate business entity from Wood, Dunn & Co. of 9 Market St, Melbourne, James Wood continuing to be a principal of Wood, Dunn & Co.

 

The company office of Wood, Dunn & Co. Ltd moved from 24-26 Market St to 8-12 Market St, opposite the warehouse, in July, 1898.

 

James Wood appears to have been a pioneer of the Victorian butter export trade to England, first visiting England to investigate the prospects in December, 1887. By 1900, Wood, Dunn & Co. was advertising as “Dairy produce and export commission agents, British, Intercolonial and local markets”.

The firm built butter factories and creameries in dairying communities such as Thoona (1889), Greta, Tawanga, and Heyfield (1900), where Reginald Varley, “in the employ of Wood, Dunn & Co.” was architect and surveyor. Varley had joined Wood, Dunn & Co. in November, 1896, as a country traveller and later became the company bookkeeper.

 

By 1904, when relations between dairy producers and the butter marketing companies had reached scandalous proportions, Wood, Dunn & Co. had opened “13 or 14 creameries and factories.”

 

From March, 1904, the Butter Commission, convened by the Commonwealth government, revealed a sordid tale of corruption involving Wood, Dunn & Company’s use of bribes and secret commissions to rural community dairy secretaries and managers to secure business. Gifts, theatre tickets and other inducements were common practice. Bad butter, stale or old butter was sold under the brand label of the producer, the best butter boxes were sent upstairs in the warehouse to be re-branded with Wood, Dunn & Co. labels.

 

James Dunn’s brother-in-law, Arthur George Butler Birchall, was used as a dummy director of Country Butter Co. Ltd, while Varley, still the bookkeeper at Wood, Dunn & Co., was also manager of Pasteurised Milk Co. Ltd. Worse was to come when witnesses admitted that there were “occasional burnings of the account books” to dispose of mal-practice.

 

By mid-1904, both Reginald Varley and James Dunn were “formerly” of Wood, Dunn & Co.” The scandal destroyed Wood, Dunn & Co. which went into liquidation, its assets being sold at auction in 1905.

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: VIC: WD/&Co.b

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WD/&Co.b

User: Wood, Dunn & Co(unconfirmed)

Dairy Produce

Address: 10 Market St, Melbourne, VIC

Revenue Use: 

1886-1899 Series, inscribed 'STAMP DUTY' 1d (shades), 2d

Rarity Scale:

 

1886-1899 Series 1d R1, 2d R4

Background: See WD/Co.a

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: VIC: WD/&Co.a

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WD/&S.a

User: William Dodgshun & Sons

Warehousemen & Importers

Address: 258-260 Flinders Lane, Melbourne, VIC

Revenue Use: 

1886-1899 Series, inscribed 'STAMP DUTY' 1d (shades)

Rarity Scale:

 

1886-1899 Series 1d R4

Background:

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: VIC: WD/&Co.a

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W&/GD.a

User: W & G Dean & Co

Oil & Colour Merchants

Address: 91 Flinders La, Melbourne, VIC

1902 Series: 1d

Rarity Scale:

 

1902 Series 1d R4

Background:

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: Nil

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W/GW.a

User: Unknown

Address: St, Melbourne, VIC

Revenue Use: 

1886-1899 Series, inscribed 'STAMP DUTY' 1d (shades)

Rarity Scale:

 

1886-1899 Series 1d R4

Background:

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: Nil

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WG/W.a

User: Unknown

Address: St, Melbourne, VIC

Revenue Use: 

1886-1899 Series, inscribed 'STAMP DUTY' 1d (shades)

Rarity Scale:

 

1886-1899 Series 1d R4

Background:

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: Nil

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W.H/B.a

 

User: W H Blackham

Auctioneer

Address: 59 King St, Melbourne, VIC

Revenue Use:

1911 Series 1d

1915 Series 2d

Rarity Scale:

 

1911 Series 1d R4

 

1915 Series 2d R4

Railway Use:

1934 Series 1d

Rarity Scale:

 

1934 Series 1d R4

Background:

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: Nil

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WILLS.a

User: W D & H O Wills (Australia Ltd)

Tobacco Products

Address: 511 Kent St (corner of Bathurst St), Sydney, NSW

Revenue Use:

Numeral issue 2d

Rarity Scale:

Numeral issue 2d R4

Background: *1 The company was founded as Wills, Watkins & Co. by Henry Wills and Samuel Watkins, who opened a Tobacco shop in Castle Street, Bristol in 1786. The company had various names as it grew through mergers and acquisitions but in 1826 Will’s two sons, William Day Wills and Henry Overton Wills took over the company and in 1830 they adopted the name of WD and HO Wills.

 

The company grew steadily expanding there manufacturing and selling of Tobacco products and in 1871 they launched their first cigarette. In 1901 Sir William Wills formed the Imperial Tobacco Company in a merger with seven other British tobacco companies. Imperial remains one of the world's largest tobacco companies.

 

In 1913 W.D & H.O. Wills (Australia) Ltd was formed and they began manufacturing tobacco products in Kensington, Sydney and in 1945 they established another factory in East Bentleigh, Melbourne.

 

In 1989 W.D & H.O.Wills (Australia) became a subsidiary of the British American Tobacco Industries group of companies.

Device: The WILLS.a pattern is one of 3 similar devices/patterns that the company used in Australia.

The 3 patterns are rather similar, particularly the later Sydney and the Melbourne ones, and this has lead to a number of miss reported usages in previous studies of Australian perfins.

                      Elsmore/Coath usage         HAPP usage

Sydney:            WILLS.a  1902-1906          1902-1931

                       WILLS.b  1913-1951          1913-1936

Melbourne:        WILLS.a  1918-1942          1903-1951

The errors in reported usage can be attributed to the poor quality of images in previous published studies, in particular HAPP (2003).

The WILLS.a device used in Melbourne was a single die device and it is found used on the revenue stamps of Victoria and the postage stamps of Australia.

The reported early use from 1903 is not supported by the evidence that we have seen and is most likely a result of confusion with reports of the 1902-1906 Sydney device, which is rather similar.

Related patterns: Refer to other WD&HO Wills patterns in:

 

NSW:  WILLS .a WILLS.b 

 

QLD:  Other, Section 2 - Commercial Overprints

         W.D.& H.O./WILLS/(Aust)LTD

 

TAS:   Other, Section 2 - Commercial Overprints

         W.D & H.O.Wills(Aust)Ltd

 

*1 Wikipedia

 

*2 http://www.davenapier.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/index.htm

 

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WP/&Co..a

 

User: William Peterson & Co

General Merchants

Address: 6 Queen St, Melbourne, VIC

Revenue Use: 

1886-1899 Series, inscribed 'STAMP DUTY' 1d (shades)

Rarity Scale:

 

1886-1899 Series 1d R4

Background:

Device: Single Die

Related Patterns: Nil

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